Our Criminal Lunatics Broadmoor





No one at the present day is likely to underrate the importance and

interest of the subject of this chapter.



An Act was passed in regard to criminal lunatics in the year 1800 (39

and 40 Geo. III., c. 94). It was partially repealed in 1838 (1 and 2

Vict., c. 14); that is to say, so far as the former authorized

magistrates to commit to jails or houses of correction, persons

apprehended under circumstances denoting derangement of mind and the

purpose of committing a crime. The Act of 1838 made other provisions for

the safe custody of such persons. Persons in custody under the repealed

provision of the previous Act, or hereafter apprehended as insane or

dangerous idiots, might be sent to a lunatic asylum, hospital, or

licensed house; two justices of the place where such person is

apprehended having called to their assistance a medical man, and having

satisfied themselves that he is insane or a dangerous idiot; nothing,

however, herein contained preventing the relations from taking lunatics

under their own care.



This Act did not alter the laws relating to the discharge of persons

ceasing to be insane, or dangerous idiots, from any county asylum,

hospital, or licensed house.



In 1840 an Act was passed (3 and 4 Vict., c. 54) "for making further

Provision for the Confinement and Maintenance of Insane Prisoners."



It was enacted that if any person while in prison under sentence of

death, transportation, or imprisonment, or under a charge of any

offence, or for not finding bail, or in consequence of any summary

conviction, or under any other civil process, shall appear to be insane,

it shall be lawful for two justices to inquire, with the aid of two

medical men, as to the insanity of such person; and if it be duly

certified by such justices and medical men that he is insane, it shall

be lawful for one of the principal Secretaries of State to direct his

removal to such county asylum or other proper receptacle as the

Secretary of State may judge proper, to remain under confinement until

it shall be duly certified by two medical men to the Secretary of State

that such person has become of sound mind; whereupon he is authorized,

if such person remain subject to be continued in custody, to issue his

warrant to the person in whose charge he may be, directing that he shall

be removed to the prison from whence he has been taken, or if the period

of imprisonment has expired, then he shall be discharged. It was also

enacted that when a person charged with misdemeanors is acquitted on the

plea of insanity, he shall be kept in strict custody during Her

Majesty's pleasure, the jury being required to find specially whether

such person was insane at the time of the commission of such offence,

and to declare whether such person was acquitted by them on account of

such insanity.



The Earl of Shaftesbury introduced the subject of the provision for

criminal lunatics in the House of Lords in 1852, and moved for an

Address to Her Majesty on the expediency of establishing a State Asylum

for the care and custody of those who are denominated criminal lunatics.

He said that the subject had been never propounded before to them in a

specific form, and the custody of these criminals had been a great bar

to the improvement of public and private asylums. The Commissioners had

already reported on these evils in 1849, 1850, and 1851. The Government

alone had refused assistance. Having pointed out the four classes into

which they are divided, he stated that the statutes by which they were

confined were three in number, namely, 39 and 40 Geo. III., c. 94; 1 and

2 Vict., c. 14; 3 and 4 Vict., c. 54.



He directed attention to a fifth class, those affected with some

derangement of mind, who, unless restrained, were in danger of

committing offences. Under the last-named Act, they were treated as

criminals. Formerly any magistrate could commit them to jail, or other

place for safe custody under 39 and 40 Geo. III.; but by the Act of 3

and 4 Vict. their condition had been somewhat alleviated, inasmuch as it

required that two justices of the peace should commit the parties, under

medical advice, and that they should not be sent to jail, but to an

asylum or licensed house. None of these parties except those who had

been committed by the justices could be again discharged unless by

authority of the Secretary of State.



It appears that there were then 439 criminal lunatics in England and

Wales (360 males, 79 females); 138 for offences against life, 188 for

offences against property and person, short of attempts to murder, 40

for misdemeanor, 43 for want of sureties who had become afterwards

insane, and 30 summarily convicted for minor offences. Of this number

there were 103 in Bethlem Hospital, 59 in Fisherton House, Salisbury,

and the remainder in various asylums. After adducing reasons for the

non-association of criminal lunatics with ordinary patients, Lord

Shaftesbury insisted that the most efficient remedy was a State asylum;

and that this was confirmed by the success of Dundrum, Ireland.



In the course of his speech he eulogized the system of treatment--"the

great and blessed glory of modern science"--adopted by Pinel in France,

and by the York Retreat in England, adding, "Oh, si sic omnia! It has

become the special pursuit of professors of this department of medicine

in the three kingdoms. By the blessing of God it has achieved miracles.

I have, perhaps, a right to say so, having officiated now as a

Commissioner in Lunacy for more than twenty years, and witnessed the

transition from the very depth of misery and neglect to the present

height of comfort and ease. The filthy and formidable prison is

converted into the cleanly and cheerful abode; the damp and gloomy

court-yard is exchanged for healthy exercise and labour in the field

and garden. Visit the largest asylum, and you will no longer hear those

frightful yells that at first terrified and always depressed the boldest

hearts. Mechanical restraint is almost unknown; houses where many were

chained during the day, and hundreds, I will assert, during the night,

have hardly a strait waistcoat or a manacle in the whole establishment;

and instead of the keeper with his whip and his bunch of leg-locks, you

may see the clergyman or the schoolmaster engaged in their soothing and

effective occupations."



The Earl of Derby promised the subject should not be lost sight of, and

the motion was withdrawn. He said that our criminal lunatics were

maintained at Bethlem at an annual cost of L34 per head, those at

Fisherton House at L30, and throughout the country at L26 per head. A

new asylum would cost L50,000, perhaps nearer L100,000, and he thought

that the same discipline and separate treatment might be carried out

just as well in a general as in a State asylum.



We pass on to the important Act of 1860 (23 and 24 Vict., c. 75), "to

make Better Provision for the Custody and Care of Criminal Lunatics."

After citing the Acts 39 and 40 Geo. III., c. 94; 3 and 4 Vict., c. 54;

5 and 6 Vict., c. 29; 6 and 7 Vict., c. 26--by the last two Acts of

which the Secretary of the State was empowered to order any convict in

Pentonville or Millbank prison becoming or found insane during

confinement to be removed to such lunatic asylum as he might think

proper--and stating in the preamble the expediency of making provision

for the custody and care of criminal lunatics in an asylum appropriated

to that purpose, this statute enacted that it shall be lawful to provide

an asylum for criminal lunatics, and for the Secretary of State to

direct to be conveyed to such asylum any person for whose safe custody,

during her pleasure Her Majesty is authorized to give order, or whom the

Secretary of State might direct to be removed to a lunatic asylum under

any of the before-mentioned Acts, or any person sentenced to be kept in

penal servitude who may be shown to the satisfaction of the Secretary of

State to be insane or unfit from imbecility of mind for penal

discipline; the Secretary of State being empowered to direct to be

removed to such asylum any person who, under any previous order of Her

Majesty or warrant of the Secretary of State, may have been placed in

any asylum.



It was enacted that nothing in this statute should affect the authority

of the Crown as to making other provision for the custody of a criminal

lunatic, as before the Act was passed.



Other sections refer to the government and supervision of the asylum,

the discharge of patients after their term of imprisonment has expired,

and for the visitation of the asylum by the Commissioners in Lunacy.



From this Act sprang the asylum we proceed to describe.



Every one who reads the newspaper is familiar with the common expression

occurring in the trials of prisoners who escape punishment on the ground

of insanity, "To be detained during Her Majesty's pleasure;" but very

few would be able to answer the question, What becomes of these persons?

Those who desire to know their destination may incline to accompany us

to Broadmoor in Berkshire, about four miles from the Bracknell station

on the South Western Railway, and thirty miles from London. This is the

State Criminal Asylum for England and Wales, and was erected nineteen

years ago (1863), in conformity with the Act passed in 1860, which, as

we have seen, provided that criminal lunatics should be separately cared

for by the State.



The site of the institution is well chosen, covers three hundred acres,

and commands an extensive and uninterrupted view. The building is of red

brick, with a chapel in the centre, and consists of three stories, with

distinct additional blocks at the extreme end. It is built on the

corridor plan, with day-rooms, and single and associated dormitories.

The windows alone indicate, from outside, the character of the building,

being protected by strong vertical iron bars. In some parts of the

building, for the females, these bars do not extend to the whole height

of the window, and escape would in such cases not be difficult. In other

parts of this division, and throughout the male division, the windows

are securely protected. In this and other ways the house is more secure

than it was formerly. I find in regard to escapes that, from the opening

of the asylum in 1863 up to the end of 1877, there have been not more

than twenty-three. During the last three years there have been none. The

majority were recaptured on the next or following day; one not till

three months; and four were never discovered. Four escaped from the

airing-court; three while out with a walking party; and four from

breaking the window-guard; while one escaped from his bedroom by making

an aperture in the wall. An attendant connived at one patient's escape,

was prosecuted, and convicted. I may add that prior to the opening of

Broadmoor, the proportion of escapes of criminal lunatics detained in

England elsewhere was much greater. The opening of Broadmoor has also

affected the mortality of this class, having reduced it materially. Some

probably regard this as an actual disadvantage; but whatever political

economists may say, medical science only sanctions, as yet at least, the

adoption of that course of hygiene and treatment which most conduces to

the prolongation of human life.



There were, when I visited Broadmoor, 500 inmates--400 men and 100

women, or thereabouts. When we consider that of these unfortunate

people, more than 300 have either murdered some one, or attempted to

murder or maim some one, it may well cause reflection, alike sad and

philosophical, on what a disordered brain may lead its possessor to do,

what acts to commit. Ninety had killed their own children as well as, in

some instances, the wife or husband; upwards of twenty, their wives;

eight, their mothers; four, their fathers; and one, both parents. And

another reflection may be made, to the credit of the institution, that

no case of actual murder has occurred since it was opened, and that,

taking the year before we write, good order was maintained, no

premeditated act of violence was committed, and there was no suicide.



And yet no mechanical restraint was resorted to, no fetters, no strait

waistcoats, no leg-locks or straps. Some patients are, of course,

secluded in a single room in which a bed made on the floor is the only

furniture allowed, and in which the window is protected by a shutter if

the patient breaks glass. The room is, when the shutter is closed, only

partially dark, as there are two small windows near the ceiling, out of

the patient's reach. By the side of the door is an inspection plate, or

narrow slit in the wall, with a movable glazed frame, opening outwards,

through which the occupant of the room can be observed when necessary.

These rooms are well ventilated, and are warmed by means of hot water. I

should not proceed further without stating that, in addition to the

class of cases to which I referred in the beginning of this

paper--those, viz., detained during Her Majesty's pleasure, including

those certified to be insane while awaiting their trial, or found insane

on arraignment, or acquitted on the ground of insanity, or reprieved on

this ground immediately after their sentence--besides these there are

convicts who become insane while undergoing their penal servitude. As a

rule, however, male convicts of this class are no longer sent to

Broadmoor; the superintendent[210] having discovered that it was

necessary to keep insane convicts distinct from the other class, to

secure their safe detention more completely and certainly; that is to

say, to separate lunatic criminals from criminal lunatics, or, as they

are usually called, "Queen's pleasure men"--a distinction sometimes

really as important as that which exists between a horse-chestnut and a

chestnut horse. It will be readily understood that the convicts--really

criminals, and often desperate criminals, they are--may differ widely

from those who in an access of insanity have committed a crime, and that

men who leave prison discipline at Pentonville, or elsewhere, to enjoy

the comparative comfort of asylum life at Broadmoor, are very likely

either to sham madness in order to stay there, or escape in order to

avoid having to complete, on recovery, their term of servitude. Anything

better than that. In insisting on this distinct classification and

accommodation, Dr. Orange did not, in the first instance, intend, I

suppose, to prevent the convict class being provided for at Broadmoor;

but having set the ball in motion, it went on and on; and instead of an

additional building being erected for the convict men, a regulation was

made in 1874 preventing their being sent in future to Broadmoor. For the

women of this class there was and is ample room, an additional wing

having been erected fifteen years ago.



Again, there is a reason, on the side of the prison authorities, why

convicts when insane should not be sent to Broadmoor. They are naturally

unwilling that the history of their previous treatment should be known

and scrutinized at another place. Hence they greatly prefer retaining

them in the prisons, or sending them to one in which provision has been

specially made for insane convict men.



It will probably occur to some to ask whether many or any of those who

are "Queen's pleasure men" (or women) are found to have been improperly

acquitted when subjected to the careful and prolonged medical scrutiny

which a residence at Broadmoor allows of; whether, in short, mercy,

based on medical knowledge, has mistakenly interfered with the proper

action of justice and law? In this matter the doctors and the lawyers

are frequently on opposite sides, and the former often find it hard work

to rescue an insane prisoner from the clutches of the law. On the other

hand, it may be admitted that, as regards some physicians at least, a

juster view is sometimes as necessary as it is on the part of the

lawyers. When absurd reasons are given in the witness-box for a

prisoner's insanity--reasons which would equally establish the madness

of many persons in society whom no one regards as insane--it is not

surprising that the judges are cautious in admitting the plea of

insanity on medical evidence. In seeking a reply to the above question,

it is satisfactory to find that if the evidence of medical experts tends

to induce juries to acquit on the ground of insanity those who are

responsible agents and ought to be punished, there have only been a few

scattered cases admitted which were "doubtful"--whether at Bethlem, when

criminal lunatics were sent there, before Broadmoor existed, or at the

latter, since it was opened. It is also a satisfaction to know that

cases of this kind have not been more frequent of late than formerly;

and this, although there has been in the present generation a marked

increase in the number acquitted on the ground of insanity. Thus from

1836 to 1848, the ratio of the insane to the prisoners tried was only

one in thirty-two; between 1848 and 1862 it was one in seventeen; and

between 1862 and 1874 as many as one in fourteen.[211] It is surely much

better that a man should occasionally escape the punishment he deserves,

than that any should be punished who labour under mental disease. To

show the difficulty of arriving at a conclusion as to the mental

responsibility of persons charged with crime, I may mention the case of

a schoolmaster who, not many years ago, used his cane on a boy in a very

savage manner, pursued him under the table, and destroyed the sight of

one eye. This man was sentenced to five years' penal servitude. He was,

of course, under the notice of the surgeon of the prison to which he was

sent, and was regarded by him as sane. The schoolmasters and

pupil-teachers, however, took the case up, and agitated for further

examination into the state of the man's mind. Dr. Orange was employed to

examine him, and, thoroughly familiar with criminal lunatics, succeeded

in discovering unmistakable proofs of insanity. In fact, he was so

poorly the morning of the day he committed this assault, so

uncomfortable in his head, and so irritable in mind, that he sent word

to the school to say that he was too ill to attend to his duties. It was

a school examination, however, and the authorities insisted upon his

going. They therefore were mainly to blame for the circumstance which

followed. This man was saved from punishment by Dr. Orange's

representations, and subsequent observation confirmed the opinion he

formed at the time, that he was not only irritable and suspicious, but

was labouring under a delusion. He was a dangerous lunatic, in short,

when he committed the offence.



In going through the wards I conversed with the superintendent on the

main points of interest in connection with the management of the

institution, and on some of the characteristics presented by those who

are admitted.



I remarked on the low mortality which I knew obtained there. "Ah," said

the doctor, laughing, "that goes against us, rather than for us. We are

blamed for keeping the patients too well!" Since the opening of the

asylum, the yearly average of death has been at the rate of 2.97 per

cent. of the number resident. As to diet it is no doubt difficult to

understand why this class should fare better, as they seem to do, than

ordinary patients in the county asylums. In one particular, indeed, a

change in the direction of economy has been made, and a very reasonable

change it is. It is connected with an important question which arises,

How far can the system of rewards for work be beneficially carried out?



It appears that until some ten years ago, the main reward for useful

work was a luncheon of bread-and-cheese and beer in the forenoon, with

another, though smaller, allowance of beer in the afternoon. Both these

allowances of beer (which were additional to the dinner supply) were

discontinued in 1875, and in lieu of them a small portion of the money

value of the work done was credited to the workers, with permission to

spend it on any trifling luxury they might desire. It was found that the

executed value of the work in the shoemakers' shop in 1876 was more

than that done in 1873 (the year before this experiment was tried), by

160 per cent., whilst in the tailors' shop the increase was 120 per

cent.; corresponding results being obtained in other departments. Hence,

in spite of the gratuities to the patients so employed, the yearly cost

has been considerably reduced. During one year the saving in beer

alone amounted to L165, whilst the saving in paid labour was very much

greater.



Financial considerations must be a very important practical point in the

existence of Broadmoor. The State pays for it; an annual grant from the

House of Commons must be asked for, and the Government must be prepared

to show that the amount is not unreasonable. Now the weekly cost of the

inmates is eighteen shillings each. That of the inmates of our county

asylums averages about half a guinea. It may therefore not unreasonably

be asked, Why is this? What have the criminal lunatics done to deserve

so much more money being lavished upon them? The chief reason is, that a

greater proportion of attendants must be provided for this class, and

that is costly. At Broadmoor the proportion of attendants to patients is

one in five; in asylums generally, much less liberal, say one in eleven;

besides which, they are paid better (as they ought to be), at Broadmoor.

Ten years ago the cost per head was as high as twenty-three shillings a

week.



A considerable number of the inmates are, as has been intimated,

usefully employed. Thus, during the year, 167 men and women were

occupied in one way or other, in addition to reading and writing,

music, etc. Eighty-six were employed in making and repairing clothing

for patients, and bed and house linen for patients and attendants; 144

in cleaning the wards; 40 in the garden and on the farm; 29 in the

laundry; 26 in making or repairing uniform clothing, boots and shoes,

etc.; 17 in making and repairing furniture, mattresses, mats, carpets,

etc. I went into one room where there was a printing-press, and a

printer handed me the printed programme of a concert shortly to be held

in the asylum. The total value of the labour of patients alone amounted,

in 1881, to L2835.



In the carrying out of a system of labour so beneficial to the patient,

and so useful to the institution, relaxation and amusement are not

forgotten. The patients play at chess, draughts, billiards, bagatelle,

etc.; and out-of-door games comprise bowls, cricket, and croquet. There

is a library well supplied with papers and journals; and one patient was

pointed out who himself contributes to a magazine. There is a band which

includes seventeen patients, as well as some attendants, and enlivens

the inmates twice in the course of the week.



This sounds very pleasant, but honesty requires us to give the other

side of the picture, as portrayed in the words of Mr. Burt, the

chaplain; and perhaps nothing serves better to show how much credit is

due to the superintendent for the admirable management of an institution

containing such elements as these. He said (some years ago) that

although he had laboured in asylums and prisons for a long period, it

had never fallen to his lot before to witness depravity and unhappiness

in such aggravated forms. "In other asylums, when the mind resumes

anything like healthy action, there is hope of discharge; in prisons,

the period of detention, however long, has some definite duration; but

here the fear of relapse, and the terrible acts to which relapse may

lead, render the condition of release rarely attainable; for many the

period of detention is indefinite, and hope is almost excluded. In

prison, whatever may be the depravity, it is kept under some restraint

by reason and by fear of consequences; but here there are patients with

passions depraved to the utmost, upon whom neither reason, nor shame,

nor fear impose any restraint."



One Sunday, about fifteen years ago, during the Communion, and when the

chaplain was in the middle of the Collect for the Queen, an event took

place, the account of which I take from his own description. A patient

with a sudden yell rushed at Dr. Meyer (then the superintendent), who

was kneeling, surrounded by his family, close to the altar, and a deadly

blow was struck at his head with a large stone slung in a handkerchief.

The stone inflicted a serious injury, and the blow would have been

fatal, if it had not been somewhat turned aside by the promptness with

which the arm of the patient was seized by an attendant. A scene of so

dreadful a character has very rarely been witnessed in a Christian

church. Is it surprising that Mr. Burt cannot look back upon this

occurrence without horror, and that he has never felt able to say the

particular collect which was interrupted in so awful a manner?



Many are the moral lessons which might be enforced from a knowledge of

the cases admitted at Broadmoor, and their previous history. Among these

the evil of gross ignorance might well be illustrated by such an example

as this. Six years ago a farm labourer was tried in Warwickshire, for

murdering a woman eighty years of age.



He believed in witches and laboured under the delusion that this poor

old creature, with others in the village, held him under the spell of

witchcraft. Returning from his work one day, and carrying a pitchfork in

his hand, he saw this woman. He immediately ran at her, struck her on

the legs thrice, and then on the temple, till he knocked her down. From

these injuries she died. Well, it was found that he had the delusion

that he was tormented by witches, to which he attributed his bodily

ailments, and was ever ready with Scripture quotations in favour of

witchcraft. His mind, apart from delusions, was weak. The jury acquitted

him on the ground of insanity, and he was admitted at Broadmoor in

January, 1876.



One lesson there is which ought to be learnt from the history of many of

the cases sent to Broadmoor, and that is the extreme importance of not

disregarding the early symptoms of insanity. Had these been promptly

recognized, and those who suffered from them been subjected to medical

care and treatment, the acts they committed, the suffering they caused,

the odium they brought upon themselves and their families, would alike

have been prevented. The diffusion of a knowledge of the first

indications of this insidious disease, and of what it may culminate in,

is the only safeguard against the terrible acts which from time to time

startle the community, and which are found, when too late, to have been

perpetrated by those who ought to have been under medical restraint.



Bearing immediately upon this, is the fact that there were recently, out

of the cases of murder in Broadmoor, twenty-nine cases in which insanity

had been recognized before the act was committed, but the persons were

regarded as harmless, and thirty-three in which it was not regarded as

harmless, but insufficient precautions were taken. In seventy-five cases

no one had possessed sufficient knowledge to recognize it at all.



It must not be supposed that although the utility and success of

Broadmoor are so great, all has been done in the way of protecting

society which the necessity of the case requires. Far from it. There are

a vast number of weak-minded persons at large, most dangerous to the

community, some of whom have not yet been in prison, while others have.

In 1869 there were in Millbank one hundred and forty weak-minded, and

also twenty-five of an allied type, the "half sharp." Whether they have

been imprisoned or not, they ought to be placed under supervision of

some kind.



Two other practical suggestions: The number of instances in which life

is sacrificed, and the still larger number of instances in which threats

of injury or damage short of homicide, destroy family happiness, through

the lunacy of one of its members, renders it highly desirable that

greater facilities should exist for placing such persons under restraint

(we do not refer now to imbeciles) before a dreadful act is committed,

to say nothing of terminating the frightful domestic unhappiness. In

most of these cases there is but slight apparent intellectual disorder,

although careful investigation would frequently discover a concealed

delusion, and the greatest difficulty exists in obtaining a certificate

of lunacy from two medical men. They shrink from the responsibility.

Nothing is done. Prolonged misery or a terrible catastrophe is the

result. To avoid this, there might be a power vested in the

Commissioners in Lunacy to appoint, on application, two medical men,

familiar with insanity, to examine a person under such circumstances.

Their certificate that he or she ought to be placed under care should be

a sufficient warrant for admission into an asylum, and they should not

be liable to any legal consequences. It should not be necessary for the

signers of the certificate to comply with the usual formalities. The

Commissioners should have power to grant an application of this kind,

whether made by a member of the family or by a respectable inhabitant of

the place in which the alleged lunatic resides; his respectability, if

necessary, being attested by the mayor.



The other suggestion has reference to the strange and clumsy way in

which the English law goes to work to discover whether a man charged

with crime and suspected to be insane is so in reality. It is a chance

in the first place whether he is examined by a medical man at all. If he

can afford counsel, and the plea of insanity is set up, medical

testimony is adduced of a one-sided character, and, more likely than

not, counter medical evidence is brought forward by the prosecution.

Thus physicians enter the court as partisans, and being in a false

position, often present an unfortunate spectacle; while, worst of all,

the truth is not elicited.



Then, it not unfrequently happens that after the trial the thing is done

which should have been done previously; experts in insanity are employed

to decide upon the prisoner's state of mind. The court should call such

experts to their assistance at the trial, and, what is most important,

ample time should be allowed to examine the suspected lunatic. In France

the "Juge d'instruction" requests neutral experts to examine and report

upon the accused, and I have recently been assured by physicians in

Paris, with whom I have discussed this point, that the plan, on the

whole, works well. Is it too much to hope that common sense will guide

our own law-makers to introduce a similar practice?[212]



During the meeting of the International Medical Congress, 1881, a party

of distinguished men from other lands visited Broadmoor, including MM.

Foville and Motet, Professors Hitchcock, Ball, Tamburini, Dr. Mueller,

and Dr. Whitmer. We shall always remember the day with pleasure. One

result was an interesting narrative of the visit by M. Motet of Paris.

We met at "Waterloo," and it was gratifying to think of the different

feelings under which representatives of the French and English

assembled, from those experienced on the battle-field to which the

station owes its name.





FOOTNOTES:



[210] Dr. William Orange.



[211] Journal of the Statistical Society, vol. xxxviii. (Guy).

Appendix K II.



[212] For detailed account of the French law, which in some particulars

may require greater safeguards, see article by the author, "Mental

Experts and Criminal Responsibility," Journal of Mental Science,

edited by Dr. D. Hack Tuke and Dr. George H. Savage, April, 1882. For

more information respecting criminal lunatics, see Appendix L.





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