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Our Criminal Lunatics Broadmoor





No one at the present day is likely to underrate the importance and
interest of the subject of this chapter.

An Act was passed in regard to criminal lunatics in the year 1800 (39
and 40 Geo. III., c. 94). It was partially repealed in 1838 (1 and 2
Vict., c. 14); that is to say, so far as the former authorized
magistrates to commit to jails or houses of correction, persons
apprehended under circumstances denoting derangement of mind and the
purpose of committing a crime. The Act of 1838 made other provisions for
the safe custody of such persons. Persons in custody under the repealed
provision of the previous Act, or hereafter apprehended as insane or
dangerous idiots, might be sent to a lunatic asylum, hospital, or
licensed house; two justices of the place where such person is
apprehended having called to their assistance a medical man, and having
satisfied themselves that he is insane or a dangerous idiot; nothing,
however, herein contained preventing the relations from taking lunatics
under their own care.

This Act did not alter the laws relating to the discharge of persons
ceasing to be insane, or dangerous idiots, from any county asylum,
hospital, or licensed house.

In 1840 an Act was passed (3 and 4 Vict., c. 54) "for making further
Provision for the Confinement and Maintenance of Insane Prisoners."

It was enacted that if any person while in prison under sentence of
death, transportation, or imprisonment, or under a charge of any
offence, or for not finding bail, or in consequence of any summary
conviction, or under any other civil process, shall appear to be insane,
it shall be lawful for two justices to inquire, with the aid of two
medical men, as to the insanity of such person; and if it be duly
certified by such justices and medical men that he is insane, it shall
be lawful for one of the principal Secretaries of State to direct his
removal to such county asylum or other proper receptacle as the
Secretary of State may judge proper, to remain under confinement until
it shall be duly certified by two medical men to the Secretary of State
that such person has become of sound mind; whereupon he is authorized,
if such person remain subject to be continued in custody, to issue his
warrant to the person in whose charge he may be, directing that he shall
be removed to the prison from whence he has been taken, or if the period
of imprisonment has expired, then he shall be discharged. It was also
enacted that when a person charged with misdemeanors is acquitted on the
plea of insanity, he shall be kept in strict custody during Her
Majesty's pleasure, the jury being required to find specially whether
such person was insane at the time of the commission of such offence,
and to declare whether such person was acquitted by them on account of
such insanity.

The Earl of Shaftesbury introduced the subject of the provision for
criminal lunatics in the House of Lords in 1852, and moved for an
Address to Her Majesty on the expediency of establishing a State Asylum
for the care and custody of those who are denominated criminal lunatics.
He said that the subject had been never propounded before to them in a
specific form, and the custody of these criminals had been a great bar
to the improvement of public and private asylums. The Commissioners had
already reported on these evils in 1849, 1850, and 1851. The Government
alone had refused assistance. Having pointed out the four classes into
which they are divided, he stated that the statutes by which they were
confined were three in number, namely, 39 and 40 Geo. III., c. 94; 1 and
2 Vict., c. 14; 3 and 4 Vict., c. 54.

He directed attention to a fifth class, those affected with some
derangement of mind, who, unless restrained, were in danger of
committing offences. Under the last-named Act, they were treated as
criminals. Formerly any magistrate could commit them to jail, or other
place for safe custody under 39 and 40 Geo. III.; but by the Act of 3
and 4 Vict. their condition had been somewhat alleviated, inasmuch as it
required that two justices of the peace should commit the parties, under
medical advice, and that they should not be sent to jail, but to an
asylum or licensed house. None of these parties except those who had
been committed by the justices could be again discharged unless by
authority of the Secretary of State.

It appears that there were then 439 criminal lunatics in England and
Wales (360 males, 79 females); 138 for offences against life, 188 for
offences against property and person, short of attempts to murder, 40
for misdemeanor, 43 for want of sureties who had become afterwards
insane, and 30 summarily convicted for minor offences. Of this number
there were 103 in Bethlem Hospital, 59 in Fisherton House, Salisbury,
and the remainder in various asylums. After adducing reasons for the
non-association of criminal lunatics with ordinary patients, Lord
Shaftesbury insisted that the most efficient remedy was a State asylum;
and that this was confirmed by the success of Dundrum, Ireland.

In the course of his speech he eulogized the system of treatment--"the
great and blessed glory of modern science"--adopted by Pinel in France,
and by the York Retreat in England, adding, "Oh, si sic omnia! It has
become the special pursuit of professors of this department of medicine
in the three kingdoms. By the blessing of God it has achieved miracles.
I have, perhaps, a right to say so, having officiated now as a
Commissioner in Lunacy for more than twenty years, and witnessed the
transition from the very depth of misery and neglect to the present
height of comfort and ease. The filthy and formidable prison is
converted into the cleanly and cheerful abode; the damp and gloomy
court-yard is exchanged for healthy exercise and labour in the field
and garden. Visit the largest asylum, and you will no longer hear those
frightful yells that at first terrified and always depressed the boldest
hearts. Mechanical restraint is almost unknown; houses where many were
chained during the day, and hundreds, I will assert, during the night,
have hardly a strait waistcoat or a manacle in the whole establishment;
and instead of the keeper with his whip and his bunch of leg-locks, you
may see the clergyman or the schoolmaster engaged in their soothing and
effective occupations."

The Earl of Derby promised the subject should not be lost sight of, and
the motion was withdrawn. He said that our criminal lunatics were
maintained at Bethlem at an annual cost of L34 per head, those at
Fisherton House at L30, and throughout the country at L26 per head. A
new asylum would cost L50,000, perhaps nearer L100,000, and he thought
that the same discipline and separate treatment might be carried out
just as well in a general as in a State asylum.

We pass on to the important Act of 1860 (23 and 24 Vict., c. 75), "to
make Better Provision for the Custody and Care of Criminal Lunatics."
After citing the Acts 39 and 40 Geo. III., c. 94; 3 and 4 Vict., c. 54;
5 and 6 Vict., c. 29; 6 and 7 Vict., c. 26--by the last two Acts of
which the Secretary of the State was empowered to order any convict in
Pentonville or Millbank prison becoming or found insane during
confinement to be removed to such lunatic asylum as he might think
proper--and stating in the preamble the expediency of making provision
for the custody and care of criminal lunatics in an asylum appropriated
to that purpose, this statute enacted that it shall be lawful to provide
an asylum for criminal lunatics, and for the Secretary of State to
direct to be conveyed to such asylum any person for whose safe custody,
during her pleasure Her Majesty is authorized to give order, or whom the
Secretary of State might direct to be removed to a lunatic asylum under
any of the before-mentioned Acts, or any person sentenced to be kept in
penal servitude who may be shown to the satisfaction of the Secretary of
State to be insane or unfit from imbecility of mind for penal
discipline; the Secretary of State being empowered to direct to be
removed to such asylum any person who, under any previous order of Her
Majesty or warrant of the Secretary of State, may have been placed in
any asylum.

It was enacted that nothing in this statute should affect the authority
of the Crown as to making other provision for the custody of a criminal
lunatic, as before the Act was passed.

Other sections refer to the government and supervision of the asylum,
the discharge of patients after their term of imprisonment has expired,
and for the visitation of the asylum by the Commissioners in Lunacy.

From this Act sprang the asylum we proceed to describe.

Every one who reads the newspaper is familiar with the common expression
occurring in the trials of prisoners who escape punishment on the ground
of insanity, "To be detained during Her Majesty's pleasure;" but very
few would be able to answer the question, What becomes of these persons?
Those who desire to know their destination may incline to accompany us
to Broadmoor in Berkshire, about four miles from the Bracknell station
on the South Western Railway, and thirty miles from London. This is the
State Criminal Asylum for England and Wales, and was erected nineteen
years ago (1863), in conformity with the Act passed in 1860, which, as
we have seen, provided that criminal lunatics should be separately cared
for by the State.

The site of the institution is well chosen, covers three hundred acres,
and commands an extensive and uninterrupted view. The building is of red
brick, with a chapel in the centre, and consists of three stories, with
distinct additional blocks at the extreme end. It is built on the
corridor plan, with day-rooms, and single and associated dormitories.
The windows alone indicate, from outside, the character of the building,
being protected by strong vertical iron bars. In some parts of the
building, for the females, these bars do not extend to the whole height
of the window, and escape would in such cases not be difficult. In other
parts of this division, and throughout the male division, the windows
are securely protected. In this and other ways the house is more secure
than it was formerly. I find in regard to escapes that, from the opening
of the asylum in 1863 up to the end of 1877, there have been not more
than twenty-three. During the last three years there have been none. The
majority were recaptured on the next or following day; one not till
three months; and four were never discovered. Four escaped from the
airing-court; three while out with a walking party; and four from
breaking the window-guard; while one escaped from his bedroom by making
an aperture in the wall. An attendant connived at one patient's escape,
was prosecuted, and convicted. I may add that prior to the opening of
Broadmoor, the proportion of escapes of criminal lunatics detained in
England elsewhere was much greater. The opening of Broadmoor has also
affected the mortality of this class, having reduced it materially. Some
probably regard this as an actual disadvantage; but whatever political
economists may say, medical science only sanctions, as yet at least, the
adoption of that course of hygiene and treatment which most conduces to
the prolongation of human life.

There were, when I visited Broadmoor, 500 inmates--400 men and 100
women, or thereabouts. When we consider that of these unfortunate
people, more than 300 have either murdered some one, or attempted to
murder or maim some one, it may well cause reflection, alike sad and
philosophical, on what a disordered brain may lead its possessor to do,
what acts to commit. Ninety had killed their own children as well as, in
some instances, the wife or husband; upwards of twenty, their wives;
eight, their mothers; four, their fathers; and one, both parents. And
another reflection may be made, to the credit of the institution, that
no case of actual murder has occurred since it was opened, and that,
taking the year before we write, good order was maintained, no
premeditated act of violence was committed, and there was no suicide.

And yet no mechanical restraint was resorted to, no fetters, no strait
waistcoats, no leg-locks or straps. Some patients are, of course,
secluded in a single room in which a bed made on the floor is the only
furniture allowed, and in which the window is protected by a shutter if
the patient breaks glass. The room is, when the shutter is closed, only
partially dark, as there are two small windows near the ceiling, out of
the patient's reach. By the side of the door is an inspection plate, or
narrow slit in the wall, with a movable glazed frame, opening outwards,
through which the occupant of the room can be observed when necessary.
These rooms are well ventilated, and are warmed by means of hot water. I
should not proceed further without stating that, in addition to the
class of cases to which I referred in the beginning of this
paper--those, viz., detained during Her Majesty's pleasure, including
those certified to be insane while awaiting their trial, or found insane
on arraignment, or acquitted on the ground of insanity, or reprieved on
this ground immediately after their sentence--besides these there are
convicts who become insane while undergoing their penal servitude. As a
rule, however, male convicts of this class are no longer sent to
Broadmoor; the superintendent[210] having discovered that it was
necessary to keep insane convicts distinct from the other class, to
secure their safe detention more completely and certainly; that is to
say, to separate lunatic criminals from criminal lunatics, or, as they
are usually called, "Queen's pleasure men"--a distinction sometimes
really as important as that which exists between a horse-chestnut and a
chestnut horse. It will be readily understood that the convicts--really
criminals, and often desperate criminals, they are--may differ widely
from those who in an access of insanity have committed a crime, and that
men who leave prison discipline at Pentonville, or elsewhere, to enjoy
the comparative comfort of asylum life at Broadmoor, are very likely
either to sham madness in order to stay there, or escape in order to
avoid having to complete, on recovery, their term of servitude. Anything
better than that. In insisting on this distinct classification and
accommodation, Dr. Orange did not, in the first instance, intend, I
suppose, to prevent the convict class being provided for at Broadmoor;
but having set the ball in motion, it went on and on; and instead of an
additional building being erected for the convict men, a regulation was
made in 1874 preventing their being sent in future to Broadmoor. For the
women of this class there was and is ample room, an additional wing
having been erected fifteen years ago.

Again, there is a reason, on the side of the prison authorities, why
convicts when insane should not be sent to Broadmoor. They are naturally
unwilling that the history of their previous treatment should be known
and scrutinized at another place. Hence they greatly prefer retaining
them in the prisons, or sending them to one in which provision has been
specially made for insane convict men.

It will probably occur to some to ask whether many or any of those who
are "Queen's pleasure men" (or women) are found to have been improperly
acquitted when subjected to the careful and prolonged medical scrutiny
which a residence at Broadmoor allows of; whether, in short, mercy,
based on medical knowledge, has mistakenly interfered with the proper
action of justice and law? In this matter the doctors and the lawyers
are frequently on opposite sides, and the former often find it hard work
to rescue an insane prisoner from the clutches of the law. On the other
hand, it may be admitted that, as regards some physicians at least, a
juster view is sometimes as necessary as it is on the part of the
lawyers. When absurd reasons are given in the witness-box for a
prisoner's insanity--reasons which would equally establish the madness
of many persons in society whom no one regards as insane--it is not
surprising that the judges are cautious in admitting the plea of
insanity on medical evidence. In seeking a reply to the above question,
it is satisfactory to find that if the evidence of medical experts tends
to induce juries to acquit on the ground of insanity those who are
responsible agents and ought to be punished, there have only been a few
scattered cases admitted which were "doubtful"--whether at Bethlem, when
criminal lunatics were sent there, before Broadmoor existed, or at the
latter, since it was opened. It is also a satisfaction to know that
cases of this kind have not been more frequent of late than formerly;
and this, although there has been in the present generation a marked
increase in the number acquitted on the ground of insanity. Thus from
1836 to 1848, the ratio of the insane to the prisoners tried was only
one in thirty-two; between 1848 and 1862 it was one in seventeen; and
between 1862 and 1874 as many as one in fourteen.[211] It is surely much
better that a man should occasionally escape the punishment he deserves,
than that any should be punished who labour under mental disease. To
show the difficulty of arriving at a conclusion as to the mental
responsibility of persons charged with crime, I may mention the case of
a schoolmaster who, not many years ago, used his cane on a boy in a very
savage manner, pursued him under the table, and destroyed the sight of
one eye. This man was sentenced to five years' penal servitude. He was,
of course, under the notice of the surgeon of the prison to which he was
sent, and was regarded by him as sane. The schoolmasters and
pupil-teachers, however, took the case up, and agitated for further
examination into the state of the man's mind. Dr. Orange was employed to
examine him, and, thoroughly familiar with criminal lunatics, succeeded
in discovering unmistakable proofs of insanity. In fact, he was so
poorly the morning of the day he committed this assault, so
uncomfortable in his head, and so irritable in mind, that he sent word
to the school to say that he was too ill to attend to his duties. It was
a school examination, however, and the authorities insisted upon his
going. They therefore were mainly to blame for the circumstance which
followed. This man was saved from punishment by Dr. Orange's
representations, and subsequent observation confirmed the opinion he
formed at the time, that he was not only irritable and suspicious, but
was labouring under a delusion. He was a dangerous lunatic, in short,
when he committed the offence.

In going through the wards I conversed with the superintendent on the
main points of interest in connection with the management of the
institution, and on some of the characteristics presented by those who
are admitted.

I remarked on the low mortality which I knew obtained there. "Ah," said
the doctor, laughing, "that goes against us, rather than for us. We are
blamed for keeping the patients too well!" Since the opening of the
asylum, the yearly average of death has been at the rate of 2.97 per
cent. of the number resident. As to diet it is no doubt difficult to
understand why this class should fare better, as they seem to do, than
ordinary patients in the county asylums. In one particular, indeed, a
change in the direction of economy has been made, and a very reasonable
change it is. It is connected with an important question which arises,
How far can the system of rewards for work be beneficially carried out?

It appears that until some ten years ago, the main reward for useful
work was a luncheon of bread-and-cheese and beer in the forenoon, with
another, though smaller, allowance of beer in the afternoon. Both these
allowances of beer (which were additional to the dinner supply) were
discontinued in 1875, and in lieu of them a small portion of the money
value of the work done was credited to the workers, with permission to
spend it on any trifling luxury they might desire. It was found that the
executed value of the work in the shoemakers' shop in 1876 was more
than that done in 1873 (the year before this experiment was tried), by
160 per cent., whilst in the tailors' shop the increase was 120 per
cent.; corresponding results being obtained in other departments. Hence,
in spite of the gratuities to the patients so employed, the yearly cost
has been considerably reduced. During one year the saving in beer
alone amounted to L165, whilst the saving in paid labour was very much
greater.

Financial considerations must be a very important practical point in the
existence of Broadmoor. The State pays for it; an annual grant from the
House of Commons must be asked for, and the Government must be prepared
to show that the amount is not unreasonable. Now the weekly cost of the
inmates is eighteen shillings each. That of the inmates of our county
asylums averages about half a guinea. It may therefore not unreasonably
be asked, Why is this? What have the criminal lunatics done to deserve
so much more money being lavished upon them? The chief reason is, that a
greater proportion of attendants must be provided for this class, and
that is costly. At Broadmoor the proportion of attendants to patients is
one in five; in asylums generally, much less liberal, say one in eleven;
besides which, they are paid better (as they ought to be), at Broadmoor.
Ten years ago the cost per head was as high as twenty-three shillings a
week.

A considerable number of the inmates are, as has been intimated,
usefully employed. Thus, during the year, 167 men and women were
occupied in one way or other, in addition to reading and writing,
music, etc. Eighty-six were employed in making and repairing clothing
for patients, and bed and house linen for patients and attendants; 144
in cleaning the wards; 40 in the garden and on the farm; 29 in the
laundry; 26 in making or repairing uniform clothing, boots and shoes,
etc.; 17 in making and repairing furniture, mattresses, mats, carpets,
etc. I went into one room where there was a printing-press, and a
printer handed me the printed programme of a concert shortly to be held
in the asylum. The total value of the labour of patients alone amounted,
in 1881, to L2835.

In the carrying out of a system of labour so beneficial to the patient,
and so useful to the institution, relaxation and amusement are not
forgotten. The patients play at chess, draughts, billiards, bagatelle,
etc.; and out-of-door games comprise bowls, cricket, and croquet. There
is a library well supplied with papers and journals; and one patient was
pointed out who himself contributes to a magazine. There is a band which
includes seventeen patients, as well as some attendants, and enlivens
the inmates twice in the course of the week.

This sounds very pleasant, but honesty requires us to give the other
side of the picture, as portrayed in the words of Mr. Burt, the
chaplain; and perhaps nothing serves better to show how much credit is
due to the superintendent for the admirable management of an institution
containing such elements as these. He said (some years ago) that
although he had laboured in asylums and prisons for a long period, it
had never fallen to his lot before to witness depravity and unhappiness
in such aggravated forms. "In other asylums, when the mind resumes
anything like healthy action, there is hope of discharge; in prisons,
the period of detention, however long, has some definite duration; but
here the fear of relapse, and the terrible acts to which relapse may
lead, render the condition of release rarely attainable; for many the
period of detention is indefinite, and hope is almost excluded. In
prison, whatever may be the depravity, it is kept under some restraint
by reason and by fear of consequences; but here there are patients with
passions depraved to the utmost, upon whom neither reason, nor shame,
nor fear impose any restraint."

One Sunday, about fifteen years ago, during the Communion, and when the
chaplain was in the middle of the Collect for the Queen, an event took
place, the account of which I take from his own description. A patient
with a sudden yell rushed at Dr. Meyer (then the superintendent), who
was kneeling, surrounded by his family, close to the altar, and a deadly
blow was struck at his head with a large stone slung in a handkerchief.
The stone inflicted a serious injury, and the blow would have been
fatal, if it had not been somewhat turned aside by the promptness with
which the arm of the patient was seized by an attendant. A scene of so
dreadful a character has very rarely been witnessed in a Christian
church. Is it surprising that Mr. Burt cannot look back upon this
occurrence without horror, and that he has never felt able to say the
particular collect which was interrupted in so awful a manner?

Many are the moral lessons which might be enforced from a knowledge of
the cases admitted at Broadmoor, and their previous history. Among these
the evil of gross ignorance might well be illustrated by such an example
as this. Six years ago a farm labourer was tried in Warwickshire, for
murdering a woman eighty years of age.

He believed in witches and laboured under the delusion that this poor
old creature, with others in the village, held him under the spell of
witchcraft. Returning from his work one day, and carrying a pitchfork in
his hand, he saw this woman. He immediately ran at her, struck her on
the legs thrice, and then on the temple, till he knocked her down. From
these injuries she died. Well, it was found that he had the delusion
that he was tormented by witches, to which he attributed his bodily
ailments, and was ever ready with Scripture quotations in favour of
witchcraft. His mind, apart from delusions, was weak. The jury acquitted
him on the ground of insanity, and he was admitted at Broadmoor in
January, 1876.

One lesson there is which ought to be learnt from the history of many of
the cases sent to Broadmoor, and that is the extreme importance of not
disregarding the early symptoms of insanity. Had these been promptly
recognized, and those who suffered from them been subjected to medical
care and treatment, the acts they committed, the suffering they caused,
the odium they brought upon themselves and their families, would alike
have been prevented. The diffusion of a knowledge of the first
indications of this insidious disease, and of what it may culminate in,
is the only safeguard against the terrible acts which from time to time
startle the community, and which are found, when too late, to have been
perpetrated by those who ought to have been under medical restraint.

Bearing immediately upon this, is the fact that there were recently, out
of the cases of murder in Broadmoor, twenty-nine cases in which insanity
had been recognized before the act was committed, but the persons were
regarded as harmless, and thirty-three in which it was not regarded as
harmless, but insufficient precautions were taken. In seventy-five cases
no one had possessed sufficient knowledge to recognize it at all.

It must not be supposed that although the utility and success of
Broadmoor are so great, all has been done in the way of protecting
society which the necessity of the case requires. Far from it. There are
a vast number of weak-minded persons at large, most dangerous to the
community, some of whom have not yet been in prison, while others have.
In 1869 there were in Millbank one hundred and forty weak-minded, and
also twenty-five of an allied type, the "half sharp." Whether they have
been imprisoned or not, they ought to be placed under supervision of
some kind.

Two other practical suggestions: The number of instances in which life
is sacrificed, and the still larger number of instances in which threats
of injury or damage short of homicide, destroy family happiness, through
the lunacy of one of its members, renders it highly desirable that
greater facilities should exist for placing such persons under restraint
(we do not refer now to imbeciles) before a dreadful act is committed,
to say nothing of terminating the frightful domestic unhappiness. In
most of these cases there is but slight apparent intellectual disorder,
although careful investigation would frequently discover a concealed
delusion, and the greatest difficulty exists in obtaining a certificate
of lunacy from two medical men. They shrink from the responsibility.
Nothing is done. Prolonged misery or a terrible catastrophe is the
result. To avoid this, there might be a power vested in the
Commissioners in Lunacy to appoint, on application, two medical men,
familiar with insanity, to examine a person under such circumstances.
Their certificate that he or she ought to be placed under care should be
a sufficient warrant for admission into an asylum, and they should not
be liable to any legal consequences. It should not be necessary for the
signers of the certificate to comply with the usual formalities. The
Commissioners should have power to grant an application of this kind,
whether made by a member of the family or by a respectable inhabitant of
the place in which the alleged lunatic resides; his respectability, if
necessary, being attested by the mayor.

The other suggestion has reference to the strange and clumsy way in
which the English law goes to work to discover whether a man charged
with crime and suspected to be insane is so in reality. It is a chance
in the first place whether he is examined by a medical man at all. If he
can afford counsel, and the plea of insanity is set up, medical
testimony is adduced of a one-sided character, and, more likely than
not, counter medical evidence is brought forward by the prosecution.
Thus physicians enter the court as partisans, and being in a false
position, often present an unfortunate spectacle; while, worst of all,
the truth is not elicited.

Then, it not unfrequently happens that after the trial the thing is done
which should have been done previously; experts in insanity are employed
to decide upon the prisoner's state of mind. The court should call such
experts to their assistance at the trial, and, what is most important,
ample time should be allowed to examine the suspected lunatic. In France
the "Juge d'instruction" requests neutral experts to examine and report
upon the accused, and I have recently been assured by physicians in
Paris, with whom I have discussed this point, that the plan, on the
whole, works well. Is it too much to hope that common sense will guide
our own law-makers to introduce a similar practice?[212]

During the meeting of the International Medical Congress, 1881, a party
of distinguished men from other lands visited Broadmoor, including MM.
Foville and Motet, Professors Hitchcock, Ball, Tamburini, Dr. Mueller,
and Dr. Whitmer. We shall always remember the day with pleasure. One
result was an interesting narrative of the visit by M. Motet of Paris.
We met at "Waterloo," and it was gratifying to think of the different
feelings under which representatives of the French and English
assembled, from those experienced on the battle-field to which the
station owes its name.


FOOTNOTES:

[210] Dr. William Orange.

[211] Journal of the Statistical Society, vol. xxxviii. (Guy).
Appendix K II.

[212] For detailed account of the French law, which in some particulars
may require greater safeguards, see article by the author, "Mental
Experts and Criminal Responsibility," Journal of Mental Science,
edited by Dr. D. Hack Tuke and Dr. George H. Savage, April, 1882. For
more information respecting criminal lunatics, see Appendix L.





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Previous: Lincoln And Hanwell Progress Of Reform In The Treatment Of The Insane From 1844 To The Present Time



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